Three-phase totally enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC) induction motor with end cover on the left, and without end cover to show cooling fan. In TEFC motors, interior heat losses are dissipated indirectly through enclosure fins, mostly by forced air convection.
Many such motors have a symmetric armature, and the frame may be reversed to place the electrical connection box on the opposite side. An induction motor or asynchronous motor is an AC electric motor in which the electric current in the rotor needed to produce torque is obtained by electromagnetic induction from the magnetic field of the stator winding.
An induction motor can therefore be made without electrical connections to the rotor. An induction motor's rotor can be either wound type or squirrel-cage type. Three-phase squirrel-cage induction motors are widely used as industrial drives because they are rugged, reliable and economical. Single-phase induction motors are used extensively for smaller loads, such as household appliances like fans.
Although traditionally used in fixed-speed service, induction motors are increasingly being used with variable-frequency drives (VFDs) in variable-speed service. VFDs offer especially important energy savings opportunities for existing and prospective induction motors in variable-torque centrifugal fan, pump and compressor load applications. Squirrel cage induction motors are very widely used in both fixed-speed and variable-frequency drive (VFD) applications.